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Captain America Fast Facts
- Height: 6'2
- Weight: 240 lbs.
- Eye Color: Blue
- Hair Color: Blond
- First appearance: Captain America Comics #1
- Powers and Abilities: Physical attributes enhanced to peak of human potential.
Expert martial artist and hand-to-hand combatant All terrain acrobatics Master tactician and field commander. Vibranium-steel alloy shield
Captain America Summary
Captain America is a fictional character, a comic book superhero published by Marvel Comics. Created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, he first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941), from Marvel Comics' 1940s predecessor, Timely Comics.The 1995 Marvel Milestone Edition: Captain America archival reprint has no cover date or number, and its postal indicia says "Originally published ... as Captain America #000". Timely's first comic Marvel Comics #1, likewise had no number on its cover, and was released with two different cover dates. Over the years, an estimated 210 million copies of "Captain America" comic books have been sold in a total of 75 countries.Death to ‘America’: Comic-book hero killed off MSNBC.com, March 7, 2007
While the term "Captain America" technically applies to whomever is chosen to wear the costume and given the Shield (the U.S. Government sees itself as "owning" the persona), for nearly all of the character's publication history Captain America was the alter ego of Steve Rogers,"Bullpen Bulletins: "Stan's Soapbox", Dec. 1999]: According to Stan Lee, Steve Rogers does not have a middle name. A revised origin in Captain America #225 (Sept. 1978) gave him the middle name of Grant, but this was shown in Captain America #247 (Jul. 1980) to be part of a false memory implant.
Steve Rogers was a sickly young man who was given enhanced strength and reflexes by an experimental serum in order to aid the United States war effort. Captain America wears a costume that utilizes an American flag, and is armed with an indestructible shield that can be thrown as a weapon.
An intentionally patriotic creation who was often depicted fighting the Axis powers of World War II, Captain America was Timely's most popular character during World War II. After the war ended, the character's popularity waned and he disappeared by the 1950s aside from an ill-fated revival in 1953. Captain America was reintroduced during the Silver Age of comics when he was revived from suspended animation by the superhero team the Avengers in The Avengers #4 (March 1964). Since then, Captain America has often led the team, as well as starring in his own series. Steve Rogers was killed in Captain America vol. 5, #25 (March 2007), although the Captain America series continues publication.
Writer Joe Simon conceived the idea for Captain America, which was refined by his partner, artist Jack Kirby, in 1941. Captain America was a consciously political creation. Simon and Kirby were morally repulsed by the actions of Nazi Germany in the years leading up to the United States' involvement in World War II and felt war was inevitable. Simon later said, "The opponents to the war were all quite well organized. We wanted to have our say too."Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Johns Hopkins, 2001. p. 36
Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941) — on sale in December 1940, a year before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and already showing Cap punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in the jaw — sold nearly one million copies.Per researcher Keif Fromm, Alter Ego #49, p. 4 (caption) While most readers responded favorably to the comic, some isolationists and Nazi sympathizers took objection. Simon noted, "When the first issue came out we got a lot of . . . threatening letters and hate mail. Some people really opposed what Cap stood for." Though preceded as a "patriotically themed superhero" by MLJ's The Shield, Captain America immediately became the most prominent and enduring of that wave of superheroes introduced in American comic books prior to and during World War II. With his sidekick Bucky, Captain America faced Nazis, Japanese and other threats to wartime America and the Allies. Captain America soon became Timely's most popular character and even had a fan-club called the "Sentinels of Liberty." Circulation figures remained close to a million copies per month after the debut issue, which outstripped even the circulation of news magazines like Time during the period. Daniels, p. 37
After the Simon & Kirby team moved to DC late 1941, having produced Captain America Comics through issue #10 (Jan. 1942), Al Avison and Syd Shores became regular pencillers of the celebrated title, with one generally inking over the other. The character was also featured in All Winners Comics #1-19 (Summer 1941 - Fall 1946), Marvel Mystery Comics #80-84,86-92, USA Comics #6-17 (Dec 1942 - Fall 1945) and All Select Comics #1-10 (Fall 1943 - Summer 1946).
In the post-war era, with the popularity of superheroes fading, Captain America led Timely/Marvel's first superhero team, the All-Winners Squad, in its two published adventures, in All Winners Comics #19 & 21 (Fall-Winter 1946; there was no issue #20). After Bucky was shot and wounded in a 1948 Captain America story, he was succeeded by Captain America's girlfriend Betsy Ross, who became the superheroine Golden Girl. Captain America Comics ended with #75 (Feb. 1950), by which time the series had been titled Captain America's Weird Tales for two issues, with the finale a horror/suspense anthology issue with no superheroes.
Marvel's 1950s iteration Atlas Comics attempted to revive its superhero titles when it reintroduced Captain America, along with the original Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner, in Young Men #24 (Dec. 1953). Billed as "Captain America, Commie Smasher!",note: This is a cover nickname on all his 1950s comics, and presented in all caps like "Daredevil, The Man Without Fear". And in any case, "Commie," short for "Communist," Captain America appeared during the next year in Young Men #24-28 and Men's Adventures #27-28, as well as in issues #76-78 of an eponymous title. Atlas' attempted superhero revival was a commercial failure, Wright, p. 123 and the character's title was canceled with Captain America #78 (Sept. 1954).
Silver Age revival
In the Human Torch story titled "Captain America" in Marvel Comics' Strange Tales #114 (Nov. 1963), writer-editor Stan Lee and artist and co-plotter Jack Kirby depicted the brash young Fantastic Four member Johnny Storm, the Human Torch, in an exhibition performance with Captain America, described as a legendary World War II and 1950s superhero who has returned after many years of apparent retirement. The 13-page story ends with this Captain America revealed as an impostor: the villain the Acrobat, a former circus performer the Torch had defeated in Strange Tales #106. Afterward, Storm digs out an old comic book in which Captain America is shown to be Steve Rogers. A caption in the final panel says this story was a test to see if readers would like Captain America to return.
Captain America was then formally reintroduced in The Avengers #4 (March 1964), which explained that in the final days of WWII, Captain America fell from an experimental drone plane into the North Atlantic Ocean and spent decades frozen in a state of suspended animation. He quickly became leader of that superhero team. Following the success of other Marvel characters introduced during the 1960s, Captain America was recast as a hero "haunted by past memories, and trying to adapt to 1960s society.
After then guest-starring in the feature "Iron Man" in Tales of Suspense #58 (Oct. 1964), Captain America gained his own solo feature in that "split book", beginning the following issue. Kirby, Captain America's co-creator during the 1940s period fans and historians call the Golden Age of comic books, was illustrating his hero's solo adventures again for the first time since 1941. Issue #63 (March 1965), which retold Captain America's origin, through #71 (Nov. 1965) was a period feature set during World War II and co-starred Captain America's Golden Age sidekick, Bucky.
In the 1970s, the post-war versions of Captain America were retconned into separate, successive characters who briefly took up the mantle of Captain America after Steve Rogers went into suspended animation near the end of World War II."Captain America #153-156 (Sept.-Dec. 1972)What If? #4 (Aug. 1977) The hero found a new generation of readers as leader of the all-star superhero team the Avengers, and in a new solo feature beginning in Tales of Suspense #59 (Nov. 1964), a "split book" shared with the feature "Iron Man". Kirby drew all but two of the stories in Tales of Suspense, which became Captain America with #100 (April 1968); Gil Kane and John Romita Sr each filled-in once. Several stories were finished by penciller-inker George Tuska over Kirby layouts, with one finished by Romita Sr. and another by penciller Dick Ayers and inker John Tartaglione. Kirby's regular inkers on the series were Frank Giacoia (as "Frank Ray") and Joe Sinnott, though Don Heck and Golden Age Captain America artist Syd Shores inked one story each. The new title Captain America continued to feature artwork by Kirby, as well as a short run by Jim Steranko, and work by many of the industry's top artists and writers. It was called Captain America and the Falcon from #134-222.
This series — considered Captain America vol. 1 by comics researchers and historians, following the 1940s Captain America Comics and its 1950s numbering continuation — ended with #454 (Aug. 1996). It was almost immediately followed by the 13-issue Captain America vol. 2 (Nov. 1996 - Nov. 1997), the 32-issue Captain America vol. 4 (June 2002 - Dec. 2004) and Captain America vol. 5 (Jan. 2005 - ).
There were attempts for a second series such as Captain America Sentinel of Liberty (Sept. 1998-Aug. 1999) and Captain America & the Falcon (May 2004-June 2005).
As part of the aftermath of Marvel Comics' company crossover "Civil War",Steve Rogers was killed in Captain America vol. 5, #25 (March 2007). Series writer Ed Brubaker remarked: "What I found is that all the really hard-core left-wing fans want Cap to be standing out on and giving speeches on the street corner against the George W Bush administration, and all the really right-wing fans all want him to be over in the streets of Baghdad, punching out Saddam Hussein.""Captain America killed!", by Ethan Sacks, New York Daily News, March 7, 2007}}
The character's death came as a blow to co-creator Joe Simon, who said, "It's a hell of a time for him to go. We really need him now."
In August 2007, Marvel announced that the Captain America of the 1940s will travel to the present day in a 12-issue series drawn by Alex Ross.Marvel press release (Aug. 11, 2007): "Wizard World Chicago 2007: Alex Ross Returns to Marvel" and ComicBookResources.com (Aug. 14, 2007): and "Ross' Return = Avengers/Invaders", by Jonah Weiland Marvel also announced that a new Captain America, with a costume designed by Ross, would debut in Captain America #34.
The 2007 miniseries Captain America: The Chosen, written by David Morrell and penciled by Mitchell Breitweiser, depicts a dying Steve Rogers' final minutes, at S.H.I.E.L.D. headquarters, as his spirit guides James Newman, a young American soldier fighting in Afghanistan.
Fictional character biography
Steve Rogers was born on July 4, 1922 in the Lower East Side, Manhattan, New York City, to Irish immigrants Sarah and Joseph Rogers.Adventures of Captain America–Sentinel of Liberty #1-#4 (Oct. 1991 - Jan. 1992) By the early 1940s, before America's entry into World War II, Rogers is a tall but scrawny fine arts student specializing in illustration. Disturbed by the rise of the Third Reich, Rogers attempts to enlist, only to be rejected due to his poor constitution. A U.S. Army officer looking for test subjects offers Rogers the chance to serve his country by taking part in a top-secret defense project — Operation: Rebirth, which seeks to develop a means of creating physically superior soldiers. Rogers volunteers for the research and, after a rigorous selection process, is chosen as the first human test subject for the Super-Soldier serum developed by the scientist "Dr. Joseph Reinstein,"Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941)Captain America #109 (Jan. 1969) later retroactively changed to a code name for the scientist Abraham Erskine.Captain America #255 (March 1981)
The night that Operation: Rebirth is implemented, Rogers receives injections and oral ingestions of the Super-Soldier formula. He is then exposed to a controlled burst of "Vita-Rays" that activate and stabilize the chemicals in his system. Although the process is arduous physically, it successfully alters his physiology almost instantly from its relatively frail form to the maximum of human efficiency, greatly enhancing his musculature and reflexes. Erskine declares Rogers to be the first of a new breed of man, a "nearly perfect human being." (The formula does NOT give more power to the patient. It only opens full potential of he/she. The test before the prosses are to see how much latent power the patient has and if it's worth it to bring it out.)
At that moment, a Nazi spy reveals himself and shoots Erskine. Because the scientist had committed the crucial portions of the Super-Soldier formula to memory, it cannot be duplicated. Rogers kills the spy in retaliation and vows to oppose the enemies of America.Tales of Suspense #63 (March 1964)
The United States government, making the most of its one super-soldier, re-imagines him as a superhero who serves as both a counter-intelligence agent and a propaganda symbol to counter Nazi Germany's head of terrorist operations, the Red Skull. To that end, Rogers is given a uniform modeled after the American flag (based on Rogers's own sketches) a bulletproof shield, a personal side arm, and the codename Captain America. He is also given a cover identity as a clumsy infantry private at Camp Lehigh in Virginia. Barely out of his teens himself, Rogers makes friends with the camp's teenage mascot James Buchanan "Bucky" Barnes.
Barnes accidentally learns of Roger's dual identity and offers to keep the secret if he can become Captain America's sidekick. Rogers agrees and trains Barnes. Rogers meets President Franklin Roosevelt, who presents him with a new shield made from a mixture of steel and vibranium, fused by an unknown catalyst. The alloy is indestructible, yet the shield is light enough to use as a discus-like weapon that can be angled to return to him. It proves so effective that Captain America forgoes the sidearm. Throughout World War II, Captain America and Bucky fight the Nazi menace both on their own and as members of the superhero team the Invaders (as seen in the 1970s comic of the same name).Giant-Sized Invaders #1 (Jun. 1975)
In 1942 (after Rogers has become Captain America), a recreation of the formula is given to a group of African-American soldiers as part of a military experiment by another scientist given the Reinstein code name (Wilfred Nagel); Isaiah Bradley is the sole survivor. After the last two members of his group are killed, Bradley steals a uniform meant for Rogers and wears it on a suicide mission to destroy the Nazi super-soldier effort at a German concentration camp. Bradley is captured but the U.S. Army rescues and court martials him. He is imprisoned for 17 years in Leavenworth until pardoned by President Eisenhower. By the time of his release, the long-term effects of the formula have turned Bradley into a hulking, sterile giant with the mentality of a seven-year-old. Rogers does not find out about Bradley until decades later.Truth: Red, White & Black #1–7 (Jan.-July 2003) The Patriot, a member of the Young Avengers, is Bradley's grandson.Young Avengers #3 (June 2005)
Further revelations later explain that Operation: Rebirth is funded and secretly a part of the Weapon Plus program, a clandestine government organization devoted to the creation of superhumans to combat and exterminate mutants. Rogers is "Weapon I," the first-generation living weapon. Following his disappearance, subsequent phases involve experimentation on animals, racial minorities, criminals, and mutants, with results including Wolverine and Fantomex.New X-Men #145 (Oct. 2003)
In 1945, during the closing days of World War II, Captain America and Bucky try to stop the villainous Baron Zemo from destroying an experimental drone plane. Zemo launches the plane with an armed explosive on it, with Rogers and Barnes in hot pursuit. They reach the plane just before it takes off, but when Bucky tries to defuse the bomb, it explodes in mid-air. The young man is believed killed, and Rogers is hurled into the freezing waters of the North Atlantic. Neither body is found, and both are presumed dead.
Late 1940s—1950s: After Steve Rogers
Fearing it would be a blow to American morale if Captain America's demise is revealed, President Truman asks William Naslund, the patriotically costumed Golden Age hero the Spirit of '76, to assume the role, with a young man named Fred Davis as Bucky. They continue to serve in the same roles after the war with the All-Winners Squad, until the android Adam II fatally injures Naslund in 1946. After Naslund's death, Jeff Mace, the Golden Age Patriot, takes over as Captain America, with Davis continuing as Bucky; however, Davis is shot and injured in 1948 and forced to retire. Mace trains FBI agent Betsy Ross as his new partner, the costumed crime-fighter Golden Girl, and sometime before 1953 gives up his Captain America identity to marry her. Mace develops cancer and dies decades later.Captain America #285 (Sept. 1983)
In 1953, an unnamed man(who later goes by the title "The Grand Director") who idolizes Captain America and who had done his American History Ph.D. thesis on Rogers discovers Nazi files in a German warehouse, one of which contains the lost formula for the Super Soldier serum. He takes it to the United States government on the condition that they use it to make him the fourth Captain America. Needing a symbol for the Korean War, they agree, and the man undergoes plastic surgery to look like Steve Rogers, even assuming his name. The war ends and the project is never completed. "Rogers" finds a teaching job at the Lee School, where he meets Jack Monroe, a young orphan who also idolizes Captain America. They use the formula on themselves and become the new Captain America and Bucky, this time fighting Communism].Young Men #24-28 (Dec. 1953 - May 1954)
"Rogers" and Monroe do not know of, and therefore do not undergo, the "Vita-Ray" process, and the imperfect implementation of the formula in their systems makes them paranoid. By the middle of 1954, they are irrationally attacking anyone they perceive to be a Communist. In 1955 the FBI places them in suspended animation. The 1950s Captain America and Bucky are revived in the early 1970s, several years after the return of Steve Rogers. They go on another rampage and are defeated by the man after whom they had modeled themselves.
1960s—1970s: Return of Steve Rogers
Years later,The Avengers #4 (March 1964) the superhero team the Avengers discovers Steve Rogers' body in the North Atlantic, his costume under his soldier's uniform and still carrying his shield. After he revives, they piece together that Rogers had been preserved in a block of ice since 1945. The block had begun to melt after the Sub-Mariner, enraged that an Arctic Inuit tribe is worshiping the frozen figure, throws it into the ocean. Rogers accepts membership in the Avengers, and although long out of his time, his considerable combat experience makes him a valuable asset to the team. He quickly assumes leadership,The Avengers #16 (May 1965) and has typically returned to that position throughout the team's history.
Captain America is plagued by guilt for being unable to prevent Bucky's death — a feeling that does not ease for some time. Although he takes the young Rick Jones (who closely resembles Bucky) under his tutelage, he refuses for some time to allow Jones to take up the Bucky identity, not wishing to be responsible for another youth's death. Jones eventually convinces Rogers to let him don the Bucky costume,Captain America #110 (Feb. 1969) but this partnership lasts only a short time; a disguised Red Skull, impersonating Rogers with the help of the Cosmic Cube, drives Jones away.
Rogers also reunites with his old war comrade Nick Fury, who is similarly well-preserved thanks to his Infinity Formula ingestions. As a result, Rogers regularly undertakes missions for the security agency S.H.I.E.L.D. for which Fury was executive director.Tales of Suspense #78 (Jun. 1966) Through Fury, Rogers befriends Sharon Carter, a SHIELD agent,Tales of Suspense #75 (March 1966) with whom he eventually begins a romantic relationship.
Rogers later meets and trains Sam Wilson, who becomes the superhero the Falcon,Captain America #117 (Sept. 1969) the first black superhero in mainstream comic books. Falcon predates Luke Cage and John Stewart Green Lantern. The characters established an enduring friendship and adventuring partnership, sharing the series title for some time as Captain America and the Falcon). Captain America #117-119 (Sept.-Nov. 1969) The two later encounter the revived but still insane 1950s Captain America. Although Rogers and the Falcon defeat the faux Rogers and Jack Monroe, Rogers becomes deeply disturbed that he could have suffered his counterpart's fate.
The series also dealt with the Marvel Universe's version of the Watergate scandal, making Rogers so uncertain about his role that he abandons his Captain America identity in favor of one called Nomad. During this time, several men unsuccessfully assume the Captain America identity.Captain America #176-183 (Aug. 1974 - March 1975)Rogers eventually re-assumes it after coming to consider that the identity could be a symbol of American ideals and not its government. Jack Monroe, cured of his mental instability, later takes up the Nomad alias.Captain America #282 (June 1983) During this period, Rogers also temporarily gains super strength.Captain America #159 (March 1973) He also learns of the apparent death of Sharon Carter.Captain America #237 (Sept. 1979)
In the 1980s, in addition to runs from such acclaimed creators as John Byrne, the series reveals the true face and full origin of the Red Skull. Rogers meets law student Bernie Rosenthal,Captain America #248 (Aug. 1980) who becomes his girlfriend. He also takes Jack Monroe, Nomad, as a partner for a time.Captain America #282 (June 1983) He also meets Diamondback at this time.Captain America #310 (Oct. 1985) The heroes gathered by the Beyonder elect Rogers as leader during their stay on Battleworld.Secret Wars #1 (May 1984)
Long-time writer Mark Gruenwald explores numerous political and social themes, such as extreme idealism when Captain America fights the anti-nationalist terrorist Flag-Smasher in Issue 312 (Dec. 1985) and vigilantism when he hunts the murderous Scourge of the Underworld Issues #318-#320 (June-Aug. 1986) . He takes D-Man as his partner issue #328 (April 1987) .
Rogers receives a large back-pay reimbursement dating back to his disappearance at the end of World War II, and a government commission orders him to work directly for the U.S. government. Already troubled by the corruption he had encountered with the Nuke incident in New York CityIssue = #227-233 , Rogers chooses instead to resign his identity, issue #332 (Aug. 1987) and then takes the alias of "the Captain" issue #335 (Nov. 1987). A replacement Captain America, John Walker, struggles to emulate Rogers' ideals until pressure from hidden enemies helps to drive Walker insane. Rogers returns to the Captain America identity in issue #350 (Feb. 1989) while a recovered Walker becomes the U.S. Agent #332-351 (Aug. 1987 - March 1989).
Sometime afterward, Rogers avoids the explosion of a methamphetamine lab, but the drug triggers a chemical reaction in the Super-Soldier serum in his system. To combat the reaction, Rogers has the serum removed from his body, and trains constantly to maintain his physical condition.Captain America #378 (Oct. 1990)
A retcon later establishes that the serum was not a drug per se, which would have metabolized out of his system, but in fact a virus that effected a biochemical and genetic change. This additionally explained how arch-nemesis Red Skull, who at the time inhabited a body cloned from Rogers' cells, also has the formula in his body.
Because of his altered biochemistry, Rogers' body begins to deteriorate, and for a time he must wear a powered exoskeleton and is eventually placed again in suspended animation. During this time, he is given a transfusion of blood from the Red Skull, which cures his condition and stabilizes the Super-Soldier virus in his system. Captain America returns both to crime fighting and the Avengers.Captain America #425-454 (March 1994 - Aug. 1996)
Rogers reveals his identity to the world, and establishes a residence in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York.Captain America vol. 2, #1-7 (June 2002 - Feb. 2003)
Following the events of Avengers Disassembled, again under the employ of S.H.I.E.L.D., Rogers discovers that Bucky is alive, having been saved and deployed by Soviet espionage interests as the Winter Soldier. It is revealed that Bucky was actually a 16-year-old operative who had been initially trained by the U.S. to perform missions that Rogers was not asked to do, such as covert assassinations conducted without Rogers' knowledge.
In the 2006-2007 "Civil War" crossover, Captain America opposes mandatory federal registration of all super-powered beings, which he sees as an erosion of civil liberties for the superhero community, and leads the Anti-Registration faction and resistance movement. He becomes a fugitive and opposes the heroes of the Pro-Registration group, including his former friend Iron Man. He adopts the alias "Brett Hendrick", a mall security guard, to avoid government detection.Civil War #1-7 (July 2006 - Jan. 2007) As the War continues, Cap enlists the assistance of several figures whom he would not choose to ally himself with under normal circumstances, such as the Punisher and the Kingpin.Civil War: War Crimes #1 (Feb. 2007)
During the climactic battle between pro- and anti-Registration superheroes, Captain America confronts and batters Iron Man and has victory within his grasp. However, when a group of civilians attempt to restrain him, Rogers realizes that he is endangering the very people he has sworn to protect. He removes his mask, surrenders to authorities as Steve Rogers, and orders the anti-Registration forces to stand down. As Rogers is led away in handcuffs, the Punisher retrieves Captain America's discarded mask.
Death and aftermath
Main Article The Death of Captain America
Following his surrender, Steve Rogers is indicted on multiple criminal charges. As he is brought to a federal courthouse, a sniper shoots him in the back. In the chaos that ensues, he is wounded three more times in the stomach and chest. Rogers is taken to a hospital, where he dies.Captain America vol. 5, #25 (March 2007) The assassination, orchestrated by the Red Skull, involves Crossbones as the sniper and Dr. Faustus posing as a S.H.I.E.L.D. psychiatrist, who gives Sharon Carter a hypnotic suggestion to shoot Rogers at a crucial moment.
The superhero community is shaken by the assassination. The Punisher temporarily adopts a costume similar to that of Captain America, while Winter Soldier and Wolverine seek to avenge his death. His shield is stolen by Winter Soldier. Captain America is publicly laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, under a monument built in his honor. The body in Arlington is a fake: Tony Stark, accompanied by Hank Pym and Janet Van Dyne, returns Rogers' body to the Arctic where Rogers had been found years before. Namor attends the small private ceremony and vows that no one will disturb the site.Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #1-5 (June-Aug. 2007)
Stark receives a package containing Rogers' final requests: Stark should "save" Bucky, and the mantle of Captain America should continue.Captain America #30 (Sept. 2007)
The New Captain America
See Bucky After being captured by the Red Skull, Bucky escapes into S.H.I.E.L.D. custody.Captain America #31-#32 (Oct.-Nov. 2007) Tony Stark shows him the letter from Steve Rogers, in which Rogers' wishes regarding the future of the Captain America identity are made clear. Bucky agrees to take up the mantle, on the condition that he be answerable to no higher authority. Stark arranges a battery of medical and psychological tests to assure that Bucky's Winter Soldier programming has left no lasting effects.Captain America #33 (Dec. 2007)
Captain America Reborn
Joe Quesada announced, on June 15, 2009,the miniseries: Captain America: Reborn, with writer Ed Brubaker and artist Bryan Hitch, centers on the resurrection of Captain America.
Powers and abilities
Captain America has no superhuman powers, although as a result of the Super-Soldier serum and vita-ray treatment, he is transformed from a frail young man into a "perfect" specimen of human development and conditioning. Captain America's strength, endurance, agility, speed, reflexes, and durability are at the highest limits of natural human potential. It has been established that Rogers' body regularly creates the super-soldier serum; it does not wear off.Captain America #372-#378 (May-Nov. 1990)
The formula enhances all of his metabolic functions and prevents the build-up of fatigue poisons in his muscles, giving him endurance far in excess of an ordinary human being. This accounts for many of his extraordinary feats, including bench pressing 1100 pounds, running a mile (1.6 km) in little more than a minute.Captain America 65th Anniversary Special (May 2006) Furthermore, his enhancements are the reason why he was able to survive being frozen in suspended animation for decades. Rogers is also unable to become intoxicated by alcohol and is immune to many diseases, as he also heals faster than normal.
Mentally, Rogers' battle experience and training make him an expert tactician and an excellent field commander, with his teammates frequently deferring to his orders in battle. Rogers' reflexes and senses are also extraordinarily keen. He is a master of multiple martial arts, including boxing, jujutsu, aikido and judo, combined with his virtually superhuman gymnastic ability into his own unique fighting style with advanced pressure-point fighting. Years of practice with his indestructible shield make it practically an extension of his own body, and he is able to aim and throw it with almost unerring accuracy. His skill with his shield is such that he can attack multiple targets in succession with a single throw by use of ricochets, or even cause a boomerang-like return from a throw to attack an enemy from behind. He is extremely skilled in hand-to-hand combat, sometimes taking on and defeating foes whose strength, size, or other powers greatly exceed his own. In the comics, he is regarded by other skilled fighters as one of the best hand-to-hand combatants in the Marvel Universe.Captain America #302 (Feb. 1985)Captain America #375 (Aug. 1990).
Rogers has vast U.S. military knowledge and is often shown to be familiar with ongoing, highly-classified Defense Department operations. He is an expert in combat strategy, survival, acrobatics, military strategy, piloting, and demolitions. Despite his high profile as one of the world's most popular and recognizable superheroes, Rogers also has a broad understanding of the espionage community, largely through his ongoing relationship with S.H.I.E.L.D. He occasionally makes forays into mundane career fields, including commercial arts, comic book artistry, education (high school history) and law enforcement.
Alternate versions of Captain America
Characters who have used the "Captain America" name
Many other people, or other versions of Steve Rogers, have taken on the Captain America identity. There have been past and future versions, such as an ancestor of Steve Rogers Captain America Sentinel of Liberty #6-7, Hellfire Club #2 and people in alternate universes (see below and Vance Astro). Following the apparent death of Rogers at the end of the war, The Spirit of '76, the Patriot, and others took on the name and tradition. The Commie Smasher Captain America, a number of unnamed individuals,Tales of Suspense #96 The Falcon,Sentinel of Liberty #8-9 Bob Russo, "Scar" Turpin and Roscoe,Captain America #178-183 have also worn the suit. The U.S. government sponsored the US Agent,Captain America #336-350 and on occasion, Clint BartonFallen Son #3 wore the costume when Rogers retired or appeared to die during a storyline. In addition, those whose ideals don't match, or are diametrically opposed to Captain America's, have worn suits based on or parodying the suit, including The Anti-Cap, The Punisher, and the new Hate-Monger.
In other media
- Captain America: The Classic Years Vol. 1 (collects Captain America Comics #1-5 by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby)
- Captain America: The Classic Years Vol. 2 (collects Captain America Comics #6-10 by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby)
- Marvel Masterworks Captain America Vol. 1 (collects Tales of Suspense #59-81 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby)
- Marvel Masterworks Captain America Vol. 2 (collects Tales of Suspense #82-99, Captain America #100 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby)
- Marvel Masterworks Captain America Vol. 3 (collects Captain America #101-113 by Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and Jim Steranko)
- Essential Captain America Vol. 1 (collects Captain America Comics #5, Tales of Suspense #59-99, Captain America #100-102 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby)
- Essential Captain America Vol. 2 (collects Captain America #103-126 by Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, Jim Steranko, Gene Colan and others)
- Essential Captain America Vol. 3 (collects Captain America #127-156 by Stan Lee, Gary Friedrich, Gerry Conway, Steve Englehart, Gene Colan, John Romita, Gil Kane, Sal Buscema)
- Captain America and the Falcon: Secret Empire (collects Captain America #169-176 by Steve Englehart and Sal Buscema)
- Captain America and the Falcon: Nomad (collects Captain America #177-186 by Steve Englehart and Sal Buscema)
- Captain America and the Falcon: Madbomb (collects Captain America #193-200 by Jack Kirby)
- Captain America and the Falcon: Bicentennial Battles (collects Captain America #201-205, Marvel Treasury Special by Jack Kirby)
- Captain America and the Falcon: The Swine (collects Captain America #206-214, Annual #3-4 by Jack Kirby)
- Captain America: War and Remembrance (collects Captain America #247-255 by Roger Stern and John Byrne)
- Captain America: Deathlok Lives (collects Captain America #286-288 by J. M. DeMatteis and Mike Zeck)
- Captain America: The Bloodstone Hunt (collects Captain America #357-364 by Mark Gruenwald)
- Captain America: Operation Rebirth (by Mark Waid and Ron Garney)
- Captain America: Man Without a Country (by Mark Waid and Ron Garney)
- Heroes Reborn: Captain America (collects Captain America vol. 2 #1-12)
- Captain America: To Serve and Protect (collects Captain America vol. 3 #1-8 by Mark Waid and Ron Garney)
- Captain America vol. 1 The New Deal (collects Captain America vol. 4 #1-6 by John Ney Rieber and John Cassaday)
- Captain America vol. 2 The Extremists (collects Captain America vol. 4 #7-11 by John Ney Reiber, Chuck Austen, Jae Lee and José Villarubia)
- Captain America vol. 3 Ice (collects Captain America vol. 4 #12-16 by Chuck Austen and Jae Lee)
- Captain America vol. 4 Captain America Lives Again (collects Captain America vol. 4 #17-20 by Dave Gibbons and Lee Weeks)
- Truth: Red, White & Black (collects Truth: Red, White & Black #1-7 by Robert Morales and Kyle Baker)
- Captain America vol. 5 Homeland (collects Captain America vol. 4 #21-28 by Robert Morales, Chris Bachalo and Eddie Campbell)
- Captain America and the Falcon vol. 1: Two Americas (collects #1-4 by Christopher Priest and Bart Sears)
- Captain America and the Falcon vol. 2: Brothers and Keepers (collects #8-14 by Christopher Priest and Joe Bennett)
- Captain America: Winter Soldier vol. 1 (collects Captain America vol. 5 #1-7 by Ed Brubaker, Steve Epting and Michael Lark)
- Captain America: Winter Soldier vol. 2 (collects Captain America vol. 5 #8-9, 11-14 by Ed Brubaker, Steve Epting and Michael Lark)
- Captain America: Red Menace vol. 1 (collects Captain America vol. 5 #15-17, 65th Anniversary Special by Ed Brubaker, Mike Perkins, Javier Pulido and Marcos Martin)
- Captain America: Red Menace vol. 2 (collects Captain America vol. 5 #18-21 by Ed Brubaker and Steve Epting)
- Captain America: Civil War (collects Captain America vol. 5 #22-24, Winter Soldier: Winter Kills by Ed Brubaker, Mike Perkins and Lee Weeks)
- Captain America Omnibus (collect vol. 5 #1-25, 65th Anniversary Special, Winter Soldier: Winter Kills)
- Daniels, Les. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1993. ISBN 0-8109-8146-7
- Gladstone, Brooke. On The Media (March 9, 2007): Transcript (and streaming audio) of "Death to America". Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- Powell, Matt. Wizard (March 7, 2007): "Captain America Remembered". Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Johns Hopkins, 2001.
- Simon, Joe and Simon, Jim. The Comic Book Makers. Crestwood/II Publications, 1990.