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Dr. Henry Walton Jones, Jr., better known as Indiana Jones or Indy after his pet dog, is a adventurer, soldier, professor of history and archaeology, and the main protagonist of the Indiana Jones franchise. George Lucas created the character in homage to the action heroes of 1930s serial films. Indiana Jones first appeared in the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark. The film was followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in 1984, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles from 1992 to 1996, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008. In addition to his film and television appearances, the character has been featured in novels, comics, video games, and other media. The character is also featured in the theme park attraction Indiana Jones Adventure, which exists in similar forms at Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea.
The character is most famously played by Harrison Ford. He has also been portrayed by River Phoenix (as the young Jones in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and in the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles by Corey Carrier, Sean Patrick Flanery, and George Hall. Doug Lee has supplied Jones's voice to two LucasArts video games, Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine, while David Esch supplied his voice to Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb. Tom Selleck was originally cast in the role, however due to commitments to Magnum PI, Selleck was replaced by Ford. The character's iconic outfit was designed by Jim Steranko. Jones is notable for his bullwhip, fedora, leather jacket, and fear of snakes.
Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark (later retitled on VHS and DVD box covers as Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark), he has made appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, novels, comic books, video games, role-playing games, and even his own amusement park rides.
The Indiana Jones franchise has produced a large number of comic books. Marvel Comics initially owned the rights before passing them to Dark Horse Comics in 1990. Marvel published adaptations of the films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, while Dark Horse adapted the Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis video game, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles television series, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.
Marvel also published The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones from 1983 to 1986, which were the first original adventures featuring the character in literature. From 1992 to 1996, following the Fate of Atlantis adaptation, Dark Horse published seven limited series. With the franchise's revival in 2008 due to the release of Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Dark Horse will publish further series, including one aimed at children. Critical reaction to the comics, particularly their interior art, is mixed.
In 1981, Marvel Comics published a three-issue adaptation of Raiders of the Lost Ark. In January 1983, they gave the character his own monthly series, named The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones, which ran for 34 issues until March 1986. The series had Marcus Brody and Marion Ravenwood in regular supporting roles, and Sallah, Katanga and Short Round also appeared. A three-issue adaptation of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and a four-issue adaptation of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were also published.
UGO Networks called Marvel's series "clunky" and said it "didn't have the best artwork in the world".
Dark Horse Comics
Dark Horse Comics published a bimonthly four-issue adaptation of the Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis computer game by William Messner-Loebs and Dan Barry from March to September 1991. From 1992 the following original series were published:
- Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil (written and penciled by Gary Gianni, published in issues three to six of the Dark Horse Comics anthology series from October 1992 to January 1993, and reprinted as a one-shot in September 1994).
- Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient (six issues written and penciled by Dan Barry (though the sixth was drawn by Dan Spiegle), published from September to December 1993, and then March and April 1994).
- Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold (four issues written by Lee Marrs and penciled by Leo Durañona, published from February to May 1994).
- Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece (two issues written by Pat McGreal and Dave Rawson, and penciled by Ken Hooper, published in June and July 1994).
- Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix (four issues written by Lee Marrs and penciled by Leo Durañona, published from December 1994 to March 1995).
- Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny (four issues written by Elaine Lee and penciled by Dan Spiegle, published from April to July 1995).
- Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates (four issues written and drawn by Karl Kesel (with Paul Guinan and Eduardo Barreto co-penciling the first and fourth issues respectively), published from December 1995 to March 1996).
A series based on The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles television series, written by Dan Barry, began in February 1992 and lasted a year. Each issue retold one of the show's first twelve episodes. Barry drew the first three and the last four issues of that series, while Gray Morrow drew issues three to six, and Gordon Purcell drew the seventh and eighth issues.
Sales of the later series were poor, which resulted in the cancellation of Pete Ford and Hugh Fleming's Indiana Jones and the Lost Horizon. It would have explored Indiana's friendship with Abner Ravenwood in 1926. In February 2008, Fate of Atlantis, Thunder in the Orient and Arms of Gold were collected into an omnibus. The rest was collected together in June 2008.
An adaptation of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, written by John Jackson Miller and penciled by Luke Ross, came out in May 2008. The following month, an ongoing children's series entitled Indiana Jones Adventures began, which is modeled after Clone Wars Adventures. The first volume, set in 1930, involves Norse mythology while Indiana travels to Sweden and Marrakech. The four-issue Indiana Jones and the Tomb of the Gods (written by Rob Williams and penciled by Steve Scott) also began publication.